Charles Darwin is best known for theory of evolution. He proposed and provided scientific evidence that all species of life have evolved over time from common ancestors through the process he called natural selection. Summary of his theory are as follows:
- Species have great fertility. They have more offspring than can grow to adulthood.
- Populations remain roughly the same size, with small changes.
- Food resources are limited, but are relatively stable over time.
- An implicit struggle for survival ensues.
- In sexually reproducing species, generally no two individuals are identical.
- Some of these variations directly impact the ability of an individual to survive in a given environment.
- Much of this variation is inheritable.
- Individuals less suited to the environment are less likely to survive and less likely to reproduce, while individuals more suited to the environment are more likely to survive and more likely to reproduce.
- The individuals that survive are most likely to leave their inheritable traits to future generations.
- This slowly effected process results in populations that adapt to the environment over time, and ultimately, after interminable generations, these variations accumulate to form new varieties, and ultimately, new species.
The guardian has published an interesting information and story behind the origin of species:
It’s 150 years since Darwin made one of the the most significant breakthroughs in scientific history – the theory of natural selection. But if it hadn’t been for a young ornithologist on the other side of the world, his seminal work might never have appeared. Robin McKie tells the extraordinary story behind The Origin of Species
- Read more: How Darwin won the evolution race (Photo courtesy of Rex Features/guardian)