Mark Russinovich, Technical Fellow at Microsoft in the Platform and Services Division has published a three part series article called – Inside the Windows Vista Kernel: Part 1, 2 ,and 3 (yet to publish)
First part covers:
The areas of processes and threads, and in I/O. Future installments will cover memory management, startup and shutdown, reliability and recovery, and security.
From the second part:
Every release of Windows improves scalability and performance, and Windows Vista is no different. The Windows Vista Memory Manager includes numerous enhancements, like more extensive use of lock-free synchronization techniques, finer-grained locking, tighter data-structure packing, larger paging I/Os, support for modern GPU memory architectures, and more efficient use of the hardware Translation Lookaside Buffer. Plus, Windows Vista memory management now offers dynamic address space allocation for the requirements of different workloads.
Four performance-enhancing features that use new technologies make their operating system debut on Windows Vista: SuperFetch, ReadyBoost, ReadyBoot, and ReadyDrive. I’ll discuss them in detail later in this article.