Well on the earth we don't need a radiation resistant computers. But when you go high in the sky you need the some sort of radiation resistant computers. But what is the need of such computers? Well let me take example of virus, who destroys data and/or just crashes computer completely, it can be frustrating for us. Now just imagine same situation for an astronaut trusting a computer to run navigation and life-support systems, such crash could be fatal.
According to NASA, the radiation that pervades space can trigger such glitches.
When high-speed particles, such as cosmic rays, collide with the microscopic circuitry of computer chips, they can cause chips to make errors. If those errors send the spacecraft flying off in the wrong direction or disrupt the life-support system, it could be bad news.
So NASA's new project called Environmentally Adaptive Fault-Tolerant Computing (EAFTC) tries to address these problems. The idea is very simple advanced computers that can think clearly even when they're bombarded by space radiation.